Royal Observatory & Planetarium, Greenwich

Photo: Tony Hisgett / Wikipedia
Royal Observatory map location

Royal Observatory address and telephone

Royal Observatory is located at: Greenwich Park, Greenwich,
London SE10 8XJ
You can contact Royal Observatory on Work +44 (0) 208 312 6565
The Royal Observatory website can be visited at

Royal Observatory opening times and ticket price

Opening hours:
Royal Observatory is open to the public from: 10 AM to 5 PM (Mon-Sun); Last entry 30 mins before closing
Time required:
A typical visit to Royal Observatory lasts 2-3 hours (approx)
Ticket cost:
The entry price for Royal Observatory is: Adult price £12.50; Child cost £6.50 (3-15); Infants free entry (under-3); Family ticket £27.50
Visiting hours and admission charges are subject to change, and may not apply on public holidays. Always reconfirm entrance fees and whether it’s open to visitors before booking tickets and making plans to visit Royal Observatory

How to get to Royal Observatory

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Royal Observatory Easy to get to? Good for kids? Value for money? Worth a visit? 303

 From Royal Observatory Greenwich


History of the Royal Observatory

The Royal Observatory was founded by Charles II in 1675 to provide the Navy with new navigational instruments. Their big problem was the lack of reliable longitudes, and it was hoped the Observatory might provide some better figures.

Flemsteed House, at the Royal Observatory

A location was soon found on top of a high hill in Greenwich. The design was entrusted to Christopher Wren, who was busy rebuilding the city after the Great Fire of London. He named the building Flamsteed House, after the first Astronomer Royal: John Flamsteed.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

The Royal Observatory’s first success was the publication of the British Nautical Almanac, which charted star positions throughout the seasons. The importance of this book led to the adoption of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) throughout the world.

The Prime Meridian marks the point at which the earth’s eastern hemisphere meets the west – the line which splits the world in two. This is what gives the world its timezones. Anything west of the line is ahead of GMT, and anything to the left is behind.

Prime Meridian Line, Royal Observatory

You can straddle this line yourself because it’s marked on the ground. A favourite photo for tourists is to snap themselves with a foot on either side.

This line was eventually confirmed by international agreement at a conference held in Washington in 1884. (Much to France’s chagrin!)

An old tradition that still remains today is when a large red ball is lowered from the spire of Flamsteed House so that passing ships can check their chronometers. It begins its fall every day at noon (or 1 PM during British Summer Time). Maybe you’d like to check your watch on it as well?

Prime Meridian Line at Greenwich

Flamsteed House Museum

The observatory has lost many of Christopher Wren’s original interiors, but one of the best surviving rooms is the Octagon Room – which originally housed the observatory’s telescopes.

As the 20th-century approached and industrial London spread, the smoke from the city meant that the observatory lost its clear skies, and these telescopes were moved to Sussex.

A watchmaker named John Harrison eventually managed to provide the Navy with an instrument capable of measuring longitude within an accuracy of a few seconds, and his clocks and watches can still be seen in Flamsteed House’s museum. He was eventually paid a handsome reward of £20,000 for his efforts – but had to wait half-a-century to get it.

The building also houses a fine collection of early watches, timepieces and telescopes, including a 28-inch refractor dating back to 1857. There’s also a collection of 17th-century furniture.

Royal Observatory on top of Greenwich Hill

Craig’s review of the Royal Observatory

This review originally appeared in his London blog

Once you’ve climbed up Greenwich Hill and had a sit down for half an hour to recover, the Royal Observatory is pretty good. The view from the top is pretty great. It’s not quite as good as Primrose Hill but it’s pretty close. You can look out across the park to Queen’s House, the National Maritime Museum and the Old Royal Naval College beyond. You can actually see the whole sweep of the Thames around the Isle of Dogs too, with Canary Wharf at the back.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich

And the best thing of all is the big hot dog stand they’ve got at the top selling burgers and sausages. You definitely need a burger after climbing that mountain. If you tripped and fell down that hill, then you’d roll all the way to Greenwich Pier – that’s how steep it is. Next time I go I’m taking a pickaxe with me. I wonder if they’ve got a burger van at the top of Mount Everest?

The Observatory’s exhibits are spread out amongst a load of little buildings. Most of them are inside Flamsteed House – that’s where the Astronomer Royal used to live. So it’s not just an observatory either – it’s an actual 17th-century house and they’ve kept some of it in 17th-century style. You can walk around his old study and bedroom and see his bed and books on the table. At the top of the house is the Octagon Room where he housed his big telescopes, but the best ones are kept a short distance away in the Telescope Dome. Apparently you can look out of it if you come back at night, but the roof was shut when I was there.

Observatory telescope in Flamsteed House

Amongst the objects on display are load of old telescopes, time-pieces and star-charts. They’ve got four of John Harrison’s big clocks and watches in there, with a detailed explanation of the longitude problem, which he helped to solve. And they’ve got a lot of push-button displays and movies about modern-day astronomy.

To be honest I thought all of this stuff was pretty dry, but it didn’t exactly help that the place was crawling with six billion kids. I must have picked the day when the whole of France had come over for a school visit, so I had them running around shrieking and wailing and ooh-la-la-ling in my ear hole.

The Meridian line at the Royal Observatory

The Prime Meridian Line

One of the most important things to see is the Prime Meridian line on the forecourt. That’s the line that separates the eastern bit of the globe from the qest. You’re supposed to stand there with a foot on either side and can tell everyone you’ve stood with a foot in each hemisphere. Apparently the French are pushing to scrap GMT and make us all use atomic time instead. What??? No way, monsieur! They should have banned their school kids from coming over – that’s what I would have done. No more French kids allowed until the French President gives up his megalomaniac plan to dominate time!

The Planetarium at the Observatory

Royal Observatory Planetarium

The best bit of the observatory was the planetarium. I remember going to the big one at Madame Tussauds when I was a kid but they’ve shut it down now, so this is the only planetarium left in London. It doesn’t look all that great from the outside but once you get underground it’s pretty decent. It’s a big round room with a 360 degree dome above your head, and the cinema-style seats are angled back a bit so you can have a kip if you get bored.

Royal Observatory Planetarium, London

The whole place is dimmed down to total darkness (pitch black) and an Irish guy gives the commentary. Our show was a bit of a kid-style one with shout-out answers for the audience, but apparently they do a few different kinds with different visuals. So if you get a choice, pick the adult one.

Our show started off by showing the stars that are visible tonight, and went on to explain the constellations, zodia, ecliptic, and all that easy stuff. They put a load of big pictures on the screen too, so we had things like the planets shooting out of the void and filling up the whole room. They had some good shots of the moon too, and the milky way, dust clouds, and other stuff from the Hubble telescope. One of the best bits was when they made it look like we were standing on the surface of Mars, with a 360 degree horizon of actual stills from the planet, and all the stars showing how they’d look if we were standing there for real.

Craig’s London blog> Read Craig’s latest review of the Royal Observatory  “When I was a kid I always wanted to be a spaceman. Well actually that’s not quite true: I wanted to be Darth Vader. So I’ve always had an interest in the Royal Observatory. I don’t think people quite realise how serious it is though. They turn up thinking it’s going to be full of spaceships and entertainment for the kiddies but it’s actually more for the adults. It’s all antique watches and clocks and period furniture from the days of Christopher Wren. The only bit that’s suitable for children is the planetarium. Once you’ve paid your money you’ll enter the forecourt of Flamsteed House. That’s the red brick building that you can see… continued.”

View from the top of Greenwich Hill

Craig’s London blog> Read Craig’s review of Greenwich Hill  “You might want to give Tenzing Norgay a quick ring before you climb up Greenwich Hill, in case you need a Sherpa to carry you the final fifty yards. It doesn’t look like very high when you’re standing at the bottom looking up at the Royal Observatory, but trust me, this is a proper hill. Think about it: it’s got an observatory at the top – and they don’t put telescopes on top of a molehill, do they? They put them at the top of a mountain. By the time you walk to the top you’ll be two days older and you’ll need another shave. Or maybe I’m just very unfit. I saw little kids running up and down it and old women laughing and joking like they were having a stroll down the shops, and there was me secretly wishing they built a… continued.”

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If you’re here to visit the Royal Observatory then you may as well make a day of it. So how about catching a boat from Westminster to Greenwich to start with? There are two companies that do it: City Cruises and TRS. Then you can look around the Old Royal Naval College before boarding the Cutty Sark clipper ship. After spending a couple of hours inside the National Maritime Museum and Queen’s House you can walk up Greenwich Hill to the Observatory.

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If you enjoy visiting the Royal Observatory then you might like to try these other related attractions…

> Science Museum From the dawn of time to modern day marvels… with working exhibits and push-button displays.
> Greenwich Park Greenwich Park is home to the Queen’s House, Royal Observatory and National Maritime Museum.
> National Maritime Museum The National Maritime Museum contains the actual jacket that Admiral Nelson wore at Trafalgar.

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